So you can think rationally? (“The Art of Clear Thinking”)… Beginning in the era of hunting, the quick reaction was the savior. Deliberation and thinking about the situation could end your life at the hands of a lion, for example, but currently, it is critical thinking that will avoid you falling into the trap of different risks and lifestyles, and the writer “Rolf Dobley” mentions in his book “Clear Thinking” .
So you can think rationally? (“The Art of Clear Thinking”)
That his knowledge of the errors of thinking made him more calm and stoic, especially as he is a merchant and a novelist writer, but that does not mean that he will never fall into these mistakes and that he will not practice rational and critical thinking all the time, in things whose consequences are not serious and the damage is simple, he will leave it to automatic thinking It’s better than bothering himself, and he refuses to be perfect all the time.
Thinking mistakes: “They are systematic deviations from rationality, which is the ideal, logical and sane face in thinking and behavior.”
1- Beware of raising expectations
The media blinds you to the fact that there is a large percentage of those who did not achieve success, and those who appear are the minority that succeeded. is yours.
2- Do not confuse the criteria with the result
Here the writer tells you about the “illusion of the swimmer’s body,” which is your belief that swimming gives a distinctive body, but the fact that the swimmer has a strong body and an elegant structure is not the result of swimming, but this was the reason and criterion for choosing him, and this example applies to many things such as beauty, happiness, the money. So be careful not to get confused.
3- Doubt your expectations
So don’t believe what the experts say they are accused of being overconfident and realistically assessing situations.
4- Don’t follow the herd
The belief of a group of people that something is right does not mean that this is true. The collective mind here plays a big role in controlling, and this appears in fashion and the “best seller” trick and other things and various life situations. Group pressure works to deviate your thinking, but there are situations where Circular with the herd is positive. Why follow the herd? Because you want to stay.
5- Ignore the past..and leave
If you enter the cinema and you do not like the movie, leave and do not think about the price of the ticket, and the same thing every time you discover that you have taken a wrong path, stop and end the matter without thinking about what you have lost of money, time, etc., all of this is not a justification for you to continue. You do not know the unseen, and your choice was likely to be right or wrong, and if you continue after realizing your mistake, you will have fallen into the “sunken cost fallacy.” “What should be reckoned with is now and the future.”
6- Decline the offer
In your life, you may be exposed to the pressure of reciprocity, such as finding someone to give you a gift and then presenting his offer, so you have to buy only because you feel an obligation to him and often you cannot bear to be indebted to anyone.
7- Protect yourself from biases
Any theory that you embrace, you will find many shreds of evidence confirming it, for example: if you embrace the theory that “people are good” you will find enough evidence to confirm that, and the Internet allows you to easily find someone who agrees with you, so you do not hear and see only what suits you or like you, and also appears Confirmation bias is evident in what editors write in the press, so you find them mentioning the theory with confirmatory evidence and sufficing without looking for non-confirmatory evidence for his theory.
And one of the types of confirmation bias is also someone who tells you: “Things will go wrong.” It is a trick used in the event that you do not know what to do in front of a problem, and this is used in different cases, for example, a doctor who did not know the diagnosis of the case or a consultant in a losing company who could not come With a correct solution, then this phrase “things will go wrong” is the solution.
Your obedience to someone who is in a position of authority and is stronger than you in illogical and immoral situations is what is called reference bias, such as the co-pilot’s observation of a mistake committed by the pilot, but because the reference bias does not work to fix that and correct the situation, but airlines in recent years She eliminated this problem by training the assistant to express quickly and honestly if an error was found.
You may fall victim to your cognitive bias and try to prove something based on what you know, which is easier for you than thinking or admitting that you don’t know. It’s like saying, “It’s better to use the wrong map than nothing.” You also find cognitive biases in repetition. For example, if you repeat “frisbee” you will make people believe that the thing exists. In order to protect yourself from this bias, sit with people who are different from you in their way and their life experience.
Stories attract you more than mere facts Although stories twist and simplify facts and the effect of the story appears in the commercial advertisement for a product that becomes more influential than mentioning the features of the product, but did you know that your brain wants the story that may change the truth in order to obtain the meaning of the story, which causes an effect on The process of making decisions and solving, in order to protect yourself, you have to deconstruct the story, and find what the story wants to hide.
So that you judge something based on the outcome and not on the rational reasons that made you make this decision.
And the mistake of thinking based on “I like you” is exposed, but you fall into it when you like someone you want to help, and they use this in marketing.
It’s that you don’t settle for not doing something like the goalkeeper in the penalty kicks, the kick may come in the middle but he jumps either to the left or the right because he has to do something, quick reaction is what we do whether it works or not. The writer advises that you do nothing until you can appreciate the situation.
8. Don’t fall into the “contrast effect” trap.
It is your judgment of something as being better, more beautiful, more expensive, or greater, and so on, and what is in front of it, the opposite is worse, or worse. So that it is difficult for you to make an absolute judgment, and your evaluation will not be rational, you are deceived in this comparison, and one of the most common places where this fallacy is marketed, such as: what happens in sales, you buy a piece because it was a hundred and became seventy, here you are the victim of the effect of contrast.
9- You don’t know
Sometimes you think that you know “I knew everything from the beginning,” but in order to be sure that you do not know, the writer advises you to write down your prophecy on the job, and in politics…. and others, and after a period of time compare your observations with what happened and you will be surprised that you do not know. This error – and it is one of the errors of critical thinking – is called: “the error of retrospective”, and one of the disadvantages of this error is that it makes you make wrong decisions.
10- Be a real knower
There is the problem of the difficulty of separating the true knower from the claimant of knowledge. From a personal point of view, know your talents and abilities and take them in depth until you become a true knower. The true knower is the specialist who knows everything about something in and of itself. The most prominent sign of the one claiming knowledge is not saying: I do not know, and the most prominent sign of the knower is that he says: I do not know, “and whoever says I do not know has given a fatwa.”
11- Beware of the illusion of control
Sometimes you think you can control things that you have no control over. The writer advises you to focus on the few things that you can actually control, and otherwise surrender your command to what has been written and estimated.
12- Beware of the quick stimulating response
People respond to what is in their best interest above all else, and not to the intentions for which a matter was made. Behind any action of any human being is a certain motive that you do not know, look for it and you will be able to understand their actions.
13- The Pleasure Mill
The effect of happiness or unhappiness wears off after an average of 3 months, after which you will return to your original state if you are happy or unhappy. Solution: Expect a short-term effect of material things and know that the positive impact is due to the way you spend your time.
In the end, the writer tells you that any wrong path you took is because you made a mistake in thinking, but even after you know the mistakes of thinking, this does not mean that you will not make mistakes, and it is also important to distinguish the difference between fast automatic thinking and slow rational thinking, knowing that It is what is required at this stage, but its practice and practice will make it fast and automatic.