Abbas, N., Ansari, S., & Gopang, I., collectively performed research to identify the Perception and production of consonants of English spoken by Pakistani speakers. Perception and Production of Consonant of English by Pakistani Speakers.
The report is based on the way of conveying the English words by those Pakistanis who speak Urdu, Pashtu, and Punjabi. The paper presents a complete picture of consonants of Pakistani English along with very exceptional accessible studies on Pakistani English, did pay attention regarding the entangled signals of Pakistani English. There are merely existing studies that investigated consonants of Pakistani English in a few parameters. It mainly represents those features of Pakistani English that have not been previously explained in the earlier studies.
Afsar and Kamran compared consonants of Standard British English with Standard Pakistani English. These contestants also talk about diverse languages of Pakistan as L1s’ consequently, considering the argument of the researchers, their results are factual overviews about the term known as Standard English spoken in Pakistan. The writers also asserted that due to their complex learning standards, their English verbal communication was L1 intrusion-free. The outcomes depict to possess accepted complex knowledge in data investigation. More than 60 languages are spoken in Pakistan that makes it a multi-lingual country.
The current research consumes phonetic data analysis techniques and forms a feature-based phonological analysis and formation of consonants of English speakers in Pakistan. From the final quarter of the previous era, the researchers devoted their attention from production to perception. The present report depicts a precise yet comprehensive scenario of the Pakistani English consonants. The research mainly focuses on the achievement of the objects that include the research, analysis, and description of Pakistani English. To illustrate the uncommon features between British English and Pakistani English in articulation and perception of consonants also to grasp the defined objectives, a huge scaled data was analyzed.
This report specifically focuses on the features of Pakistani English which are not brought to light. A comprehensive explanation of the earlier studies summarized below clearly specifies the features of Pakistani English, based on empirical evidence is highly needed. According to the research study of Afsar and Kamran, Pakistani people use a labio-dental approximant /υ/ instead of /w/ in their English speech. A key difference between this study compared to earlier studies is that the earlier studies depict that the Pakistani English possess a single phoneme for dual British English phonemes /v w/, but Afsar and Kamran figured out that in the Standard Pakistani English, /v/ and /υ/ are two different phonemes consistent to British English /v/ and /w/, individually.
Similar, to earlier studies, aspiration contrast is known to be very less in Pakistani English and a similar fact has been provided by Afsar and Kamran. Another key point to observe between the earlier and current study is that the latter also approves that the Pakistani speakers do not uphold allophonic variance between clear and dark laterals of Pakistani English. Dental fricatives are formed as dental stops by the members of this study were Afsar and Kamran. They have also claimed that Pakistanis replace voiceless dental fricative of British English with voiceless aspirated stops. A different approach from Mahboob & Ahmar, the participants of Afsar and Kamran break “sp, st, SK” clusters by adding a schwa between, instead of adding before the consonant clusters. /r/ was found rhetoric and often with retroflection in the study.
A quite meaningful outcome of the study by Afsar and Kamran is that their members formed English affricates and Alveo-palatal fricatives with a frication time which is less when compared to the native speakers of British English. Not to mention another key point that is, an enormous amount of the Pakistani English speaker alternate palato-alveolar fricative [ʒ] with [j]. Following the Afsar and Kamran, consonants that have double letters were produced twice by their members. The approximant [j] was known to be absent in the articulation of words like “student, stupid”. Hence, the findings by Afsar and Kamran are the progressive approach in the present study on Pakistani English. It has led to the facts that were not highlighted in the earlier studies.
The article contributed to understanding the phonological and phonetic features of Pakistani English as the following important points were discussed in the article. The aspiration difference is neutralized in Pakistani English therefore, aspirated pauses of British English are produced without aspiration in Pakistani English. Voiced stops of English are articulated with pre-voicing British English [t d] are formed with repeated patterns in Pakistani English. British English affricates are articulated as stops in Pakistani English.
Dental fricatives are also articulated as dental stops. The voiceless dental fricative is articulated as a voiceless aspirated stop and the voiced dental fricative is created as a pre-voiced dental stop. In British English [v w] are together associated with a labio-dental approximant in Pakistani English. Allophonic variance in lateral is not sustained; therefore, /l/ on syllable coda position, which is produced dark in British English, is pronounced as a clear [l] including on word/syllable-initial position. /r/ is uttered as a rhotic with a strong vibrating effect including onset and coda of syllables. English, velar nasal is phonologically observed as a combination of the alveolar nasal and velar stop, and voiceless /h/ is pronounced as voiced by certain Pakistani speakers.
The study in focus takes phonetic data analysis techniques and forms a feature-based phonological analysis of consonants of Pakistani English. Unlike many models of feature geometry, we shall focus on Clements & Hume model which is frequently common in the research in focus on phonology. Significantly, the earlier studies are drawn from production only. The present study focuses on the perception and production of consonants of English by speakers in Pakistan.
The study provides a detailed analysis of consonants of Pakistani English. Much more information is provided in the article through the experiences of expert researchers. To my understanding, the article is compiled in a well-organized manner that makes complete sense. The level of accuracy can be seen through the organization of the article.
According to my opinion or as much as I understood this article, there are no drawbacks seen in the researcher’s effort. They have accomplished the entire work in a befitting manner. All concerned areas are illustrated wholly. there is nothing left over which can be added further. A piece of very well descriptive information has been provided on consonants. The article is therefore recommendable to other students to read and promote such informative material regarding research on perception and production of consonants of Pakistani English.