Ecology refers to the gene-based ecological perspective of life which is actually related to an animal’s behavior in a specific environment. Ecology is a long-term that describes the interaction between organisms and their environment, also linked with other important events like natural selection, adaptation, and evolution. Evolution means the change in the behavior, characteristics, and traits of an organism due to a change in its genes. The main cause of this process is the environmental condition that directly or indirectly influences the traits and characteristics of an organism. The simple description used for evolution as: “Descent with Modification”.
Fitness determines the reproductive efficiency of an organism that how many potential offsprings it produces. Any organism is considered successful and fit when it will be able to produce more species like them. The transfer of good traits from parents to the next generation is necessary for survival. Direct fitness refers to the production of kids while indirect fitness refers to helping in the success of genetic fitness such as saving lives of the same kind of organisms/own kids/relatives.
The process in which nature selects the fittest organism or the best traits only to preserve the most efficient species. The powerful species will be survived through calamities while the rest will soon be eliminated. It’s also called “optimization”. Usually, some external force triggers that elimination process in the environment. Such as Pandemic, volcanic eruption, flooding, storms, and earthquakes, etc.
There is a pond of fishes where there is a danger of an enemy fish that hunts the small fishes. The small fishes residing in there ultimately would develop this trait to protect themselves against the predator. Only the fishes being in that environment and have developed this trait will be saved. They will be remained in there while those that will lack the specific traits would perish soon.
Having diversity and variation is important in any environment so nature can easily act upon them. Variation acted as a raw material in this process. A certain environment or condition determines what characteristics are the most suitable to exist and what should be excluded.
Types of Natural Selection:
Intraspecific: The interaction between the same kinds of organisms/ species.
- Competition for food between species.
- Competition between the same gender for having a mating partner.
Interspecific: The interaction between different organisms/species.
- Competition & Predation
History of an Evolution:
Darwin presented the concept of evolution as the process by which organisms change over time, the change can either be in behavior or physical. The adaption in any environment does happen due to these changes. The theory defines that all the life forms are interlinked/ connected and related to each other.
The modifications are passed on from one generation to another, the characteristics which help the organism to get survived and successfully reproduce. This is also called the ” fitness of an organism”.