Tourism has a positive and negative impact on the environment, culture, and economy. Tourism generates income and creates employment. However, they also have harmful effects at the same time. As when more visitors or tourists visit a destination, they will need to construct more buildings as a form of accommodation for tourism purposes, which negatively affects wildlife.
In fact, Sustainable Tourism exists to diminish the friction made by interactions between the tourists, culture, and environment. Also, sustainable tourism has a triple bottom line with positive and negative impacts, such as in the economy, culture, and environment. On the whole, this article explains the positive and negative effects of tourism and what should be done to lessen the tension created by these factors.
The Positive Impacts brought By Tourism
The expenses tourists spend in a destination bring more money to the island. For example, in El Nido Palawan, when tourists purchase a drink, food, souvenirs, a fee to an island tour, or any products or services, they generate island income. In fact, they create also more job opportunities. Thus, there is a need to hire hotel receptionists, tour guides, drivers, accountant, bartender, chef, and many more.
Tourism also builds businesses such as accommodations, restaurants, bars, pubs, food stalls, souvenir shops, grocery shops, convenience stores, travel agencies, and other tourism industries. Besides, it provides job opportunities and brings income to a destination. The number of tourist arrivals in El Nido Palawan reached 144,257 in 2017. Indeed, El Nido is one of the top destinations in Palawan.
The tourists and visitors learn and appreciate the local cultures, traditions, and arts. As a result, the local people are determined to preserve their culture, practices, and heritage alive for the next generations. Therefore, culture is an essential factor in our life and society.
Similarly, it is the fundamental element of understanding values, ethnicity, and feelings. By exploring other cultures brought by tourism, we appreciate more each person’s differences- and, we learn the indigenous people’s culture. Thus, we learn to be respectful, to understand, and to appreciate arts. Also, we help to promote and encourage diversity rather than discrimination.
Tourism helps to protect, encourage, and create awareness about environmental pollution. Additionally, tourism promotes the role of ecotourism and sustainable tourism, which helps to educate and creating ecological activities in a destination, such as the Clean and Green program, Earth Day, Climate Change Program, Global Warming Solutions, Ecotourism, and Sustainable Programs.
The Negative Impacts Bring By The Tourism
The more tourists in a destination are, the more the products and services prices increase. Consequently, it becomes more expensive to the local people- also, tourist facilities are more prioritized than the needs of the local people, such as the infrastructure of schools, roads, bridges, hospitals, and many more.
Additionally, there is the problem of seasonal jobs, as companies tend to hire employees during peak season, the busiest time every year. yet, it reduces staff during the slow season to meet the minimum wage.
Overtourism or overcrowding occurs when the specific destination becomes more populated with tourists or visitors. Also, the perception and concentration brought by tourism have changed dramatically. In the same way, it brings noise and social interaction between the tourists and the local people.
Additionally, local people want to copy the lifestyle of tourists. Sometimes, they do not want to wear their traditional clothing. They prefer to wear modernized clothing. They also prefer to settle down in a city rather than hunt, farm, or fishing in their village.
On April 26, 2018, the Philippines’ famous destination was temporarily shut down- Boracay was temporarily closed to have a significant cleanup of the island. Boracay island is one of the victims of pollution created by mass tourism. Thus, tourism contributes to pollution, overuse, littering, mining, soil erosion, loss of natural habitat, and deforestation.
What Should We Do as Tourists
As tourists or visitors, we need to be responsible when we travel both domestically and internationally. Hence, we need to improve our behavior wherever we are. As tourists, we need to be mindful and to follow the cultural rules when we travel. Indeed, much better if we research information about the destination before we go there.
We love to take several photos during our holiday, but we need to ask before taking pictures in every corner we visit. Most importantly, respect and understand the different cultures we encounter. Also, learning a local language is a way to make a difference in our life. In fact, always remember the principle of Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism.