Inflammation of tonsils may be acute or chronic.
1: Provides local immunity.
2: Provides a surveillance mechanism so that the entire body is prepared for defense.
Classified as (superficial tonsillitis, acute follicular tonsillitis, acute membranous tonsillitis, acute parenchymatous tonsillitis).
Hemolytic streptococcus is the most commonly infected organism. Other causes of infection may be staphylococcus, pneumococcus. It is rare in infants and persons above 50 years of age.
Signs and symptoms
1: Often the breath is fetid and the tongue is coasted.
2: Hyperemia of pillars, soft palate, and uvula.
3: Jugulodigastric lymph nodes are enlarged and tender.
4: Sore throat and difficulty in swallowing.
5: Fever and may be associated with chills and rigors.
6: Constitutional symptoms: Headache, body aches, malaise, and constipation.
1: Chronic tonsillitis.
2: Peritonsillar abscess.
3: Acute otitis media.
4: Rheumatic fever.
5: Parapharyngeal abscess.
1: The patient is put to bed and encouraged to take plenty of fluids.
3: Antimicrobial therapy.
Membranous tonsillitis, diphtheria, Vincent angina, infectious mononucleosis, agranulocytosis, leukemia, aphthous ulcers, traumatic ulcer, and malignancy tonsil.
It may be a complication of acute tonsillitis. Mostly affects children and young adults.
Types: Chronic follicular tonsillitis, chronic parenchymatous tonsillitis, and chronic fibroid tonsillitis.
1: Recurrent attacks of sore throat or acute tonsillitis.
2: Difficulty in swallowing and choking spells at night.
3: Bad taste in the mouth and foul breath due to pus in crypts.
4: Chronic irritation in the throat with cough.
1: Tonsils may show varying degrees of enlargement.
2: There may be yellowish beads of pus on the medial surface of the tonsil.
3: Tonsils are small but pressure on the anterior pillar expresses frank pus or cheesy material.
4: Flushing of anterior pillars compared to the rest of the pharyngeal mucosa.
5: Enlargement of jugulodigastric lymph nodes.
1: Conservative treatment consists of attention to general health, diet, treatment of coexistent infection of teeth, nose, and sinuses.
2: Tonsillectomy is indicated when tonsils interfere with speech, deglutition and respiration or cause recurrent attacks.
1: Peritonsillar abscess
2: Parapharyngeal abscess
4: Tonsillar cyst
5: Focus of infection in rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis, eye, and skin disorders.
Differences between tonsil and adenoid
Tonsils are encapsulated, two in number, have crypts, lined by squamous epithelium, and have no efferent lymphatics while adenoid is unencapsulated, one in number, has furrows, lined by ciliated columnar epithelium, and has both afferent and efferent lymphatics.