The human brain is the most complex or important structure present in the human body. It is located in the head, close to the sensory organs. The skull bones protect the brain. This spongy mass of fat and protein is responsible for all the functions of our body. The human brain is composed primarily of two broad classes of cells called neurons and glial cells (Glia). The brain governs intelligence, emotions, memory, etc. and it controls all the other body parts. The CNS (Central Nervous System) consists of the brain and spinal cord (A massive bundle of nerve fibers located in the back which carries messages to and from the brain). The average weight of a human brain is 3 pounds
PARTS OF THE HUMAN BRAIN AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
CEREBRUM: The largest part and the front of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres such as the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere. A bundle of fibers named corpus callosum, which helps in passing messages from one side to the other join these hemispheres. The surface of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex. When compared to other organisms, humans have the most developed cerebrum. Almost 85% of the brain’s weight is accounted for by the cerebrum. Each hemisphere controls the opposite part of the body. In other words, the right hemisphere controls the left part of the human body and the left hemisphere controls the right part.
Lobes: These hemispheres are further divided into four regions called lobes. Firstly, the frontal lobes which are located behind our forehead play function like behavior, thoughts, emotions, intelligence, movement, speech, etc. The lobes located behind the frontal lobes are parietal lobes, which mainly process sensory information such as touch, pain, etc. At the rear part of the brain, located the occipital lobes, which mainly interpret the vision. Lastly, the temporal lobes, which are the sides of the brain are mainly involved with memory, hearing, and understanding language.
CEREBELLUM: The second largest part of the brain. It is located behind the cerebrum. The two main parts of the cerebellum are the cerebellar cortex and the cerebellar nuclei. The cerebellar cortex is a layer that consists of folded tissues that contain most of the cerebellum’s neurons. This layer covers the white matter (The paler tissue seen in the brain and spinal cord). The cerebellar nuclei are the innermost part of the cerebellum containing the nerve cells. The cerebellum plays an important role in coordinating movement, mental function, posture, and balance.
DIENCEPHALON: The third largest part of the brain. It is located in the core of the brain. The two major sections of the diencephalon are the thalamus and the hypothalamus. The thalamus acts as a relay station for almost all information that comes and goes to the cortex. It involves the sensation of pain, attention, memory, etc. The hypothalamus is the chief control of the autonomic system and controls hormone secretions from the nearest pituitary gland. It plays a major role in controlling behavior like hunger, sleep, etc. It also regulates temperature and blood pressure.
BRAINSTEM: The posterior or middle part of the brain. The pons and medulla oblongata are present in the brainstem. The pons is the deep part of the brain, which consists of many of the control areas for eye and face movements. The medulla oblongata is the lowest part of the brainstem and the most vital part of the brain, which plays a major role in controlling the heart and lungs. The brainstem regulates when we feel sleepy or awake and connects the cerebrum as well as the cerebellum to the spinal cord.
CELLS IN THE HUMAN BRAIN AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
NEURONS: The dominant cells in the brain. They have branch-like projections called axons and dendrites, which gather and transmit electrochemical signals.
GLIAL CELLS: There are different types of glial cells, which provide structural as well as metabolic support and play a major role in keeping the brain healthy.
HEALTH OF THE BRAIN
Our physical health is certainly important. Similarly, our mental health is important too. The brain is the chief organ in our body that controls all the functions of other body parts. so, above all other organs, the brain’s health is more important. Therefore, we must keep our brain healthy and strong.
4 WAYS TO KEEP THE BRAIN HEALTHY
- EXERCISE: Research proves that exercising will keep our brain healthy as well as our body.
- MENTAL-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Engaging in activities such as solving puzzles and problems, which need more concentration and thoughts will increase the ability of the brain.
- AVOID ALCOHOLIC CONSUMPTION: Alcoholic consumption affects the cerebellum of the brain harmfully.
- MAINTAIN A HEALTHY DIET: In order to keep our brain healthy, we should maintain a healthy diet. Hence, we should eat foods that are low cholesterol and contains more protein and unsaturated fat.