The term “Artificial Intelligence” was first introduced by John McCarthy in the year 1956. Humungous data exists all around us. According to the research, the data will reach 100s of ZB (Zeta Byte) at the end of the year 2020. To deal with such a large amount of data, we need high computational power and reliable storage. AI is the science of creating an intelligent machine. In AI, machines have to process and integrate a huge amount of data. AI makes machines to mimic intelligent behavior as men do. AI involves the transformation of a computer system to perform special tasks that generally require human intelligence such as learning through experience, object recognition, analyzing and solving critical problems, and accurate predication with high-level computation, etc.
STAGES OF AI
There are three stages of AI which are discussed below:
- Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) is a weak AI that makes a machine to do narrowly explained specific tasks as historically, machines do not have any thinking ability.
- Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is a strong AI. According to this hypothesis, the machine will be able to think and make decisions like humans make decisions smartly. There is no current example of complete AGI. It is a threat to human existence. Currently, few machines in the market are examples of limited-AGI.
- Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) is the final stage of AI. According to this concept, computers will be performing better than humans. They will be able to think and reason more accurately. Hence machines will be ruling the world as we see in science fiction movies.
TYPES OF AI
There are four types of AI which are detailed below:
- Reactive Machine AI takes into account the current situation and present data. Machines, which are falling in the class can only do the narrow range of pre-defined tasks. They cannot use current learning in the future. Famous chess program- Deep Blue created by IBM is the best example. It uses ANI.
- Limited Memory AI makes decisions by considering the past data and experiences present in the temporary memory or short-lived memory. Self-driving cars are examples of this type. It falls into the AGI stage.
- Theory of Mind AI is emotional intelligence. It will be used to control human psychology and behavior. It is in the developing stage. It will use ASI.
- Self-Aware AI involves the ASI and according to this concept, machines will be performing smartly in comparison to humans. This AI does not exist yet.
AI can be implemented using Machine learning, Deep learning, Fuzzy Logic, Expert Systems, Natural Language Processing (NLP), Robotics. Computer Vision and Image Processing utilize AI.